Federal Reserve Covers Up Banker Crimes

45_Fed_Banking_Crimes

•Whistleblower punished for exposing truth about Federal Reserve perfidy.

By Keith Johnson

From The Pentagon Papers to the National Security Agency spying scandal, the past half-century has watched Americans cheer as several of their fellow countrymen have stepped forward to blow the lid off the rampant criminality and corruption that exists at the highest levels of government, industry and finance. Recently, former bank examiner Carmen M. Segarra was added to this list of courageous whistleblowers for exposing how the privately owned and controlled Federal Reserve covers up criminal practices of the world’s wealthiest elites.

In 2011, Ms. Segarra was hired by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. As part of a new team of bank examiners, her job was to monitor one of several so-called too-big-to-fail banks and help oversee implementation of strict new regulations that came as the result of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street regulatory overhaul, which passed Congress and was signed into law in 2010.

Ms. Segarra was assigned to Goldman Sachs, the Wall Street giant once described as “a great vampire squid wrapped around the face of humanity” by Rolling Stone magazine writer Matt Taibbi.




 
 
 

Under the new rules, investment banking behemoths were expected to address conflicts of interest in how their dealmakers handled clients. The examiners concluded that Goldman’s policies fell far short of the new legal requirements. However, once Ms. Segarra’s revelations were brought to the attention of the New York Fed, rather than being rewarded she was taken aside and pressured to change her position.

“They wanted me to falsify my findings,” Ms. Segarra told the news website “ProPublica,” “and when I wouldn’t, they fired me.”

Ms. Segarra’s refusal to play the game according to the Fed’s rules brought her career to an abrupt end within seven short months. During that time, however, the tenacious bank examiner managed to secretly record 46 hours of conversations held inside the New York Fed, providing an unprecedented glimpse into the inner workings of one of the nation’s most unaccountable entities.




During a recent interview with “ProPublica Segarra said, “There are laws, rules and regulations already in the books that, if regulators enforced them properly, would go a long way toward fixing this problem.”

Of course, readers of AMERICAN FREE PRESS know that the only real way to fix this problem is to abolish the Federal Reserve altogether. Hopefully, Ms. Segarra will also come to this realization and learn that transparency will not improve a financial system that was never designed to work for the benefit of the American people.

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Keith Johnson is a writer based in Tennessee.

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5 Responses to Federal Reserve Covers Up Banker Crimes

  1. peterpalms says:
    The method by which the Federal Reserve creates money out of nothing; the concept of usury as the payment of interest on pretended loans; the true cause of the hidden tax called inflation; the way in which the Fed creates boom-bust cycles.

    UNDERSTANDING THE ILLUSION

    That’s really all one needs to know about the operation of the banking cartel under the protection of the Federal Reserve. But it would be a shame to stop here without taking a look at the actual cogs, mirrors, and pulleys that make the magical mechanism work. It is a truly fascinating engine of mystery and deception. Let us, therefore, turn our attention to the actual process by which the magicians create the illusion of modern money. First we shall stand back for a general view to see the overall action. Then we shall move in closer and examine each component in detail.

    THE MANDRAKE MECHANISM: AN OVERVIEW

    DEBT

    The entire function of this machine is to convert debt into money. It’s just that simple.

    First, the Fed takes all the government bonds which the public does not buy and writes a check to Congress in exchange for them. (It acquires other debt obligations as well, but government bonds comprise most of its inventory.) There is no money to back up this check. These fiat dollars are created on the spot for that purpose. By calling those bonds “reserves,” the Fed then uses them as the base for creating 9 additional dollars for every dollar created for the bonds themselves. The money created for the bonds is spent by the government, whereas the money created on top of those bonds is the source of all the bank loans made to the nation’s businesses and individuals. The result of this process is the same as creating money on a printing press, but the illusion is based on an accounting trick rather than a printing trick. The bottom line is that Congress and the banking cartel have entered into a partnership in which the cartel has the privilege of collecting interest on money which it creates out of nothing, a perpetual override on every American dollar that exists in the world. Congress, on the other hand, has access to unlimited funding without having to tell the voters their taxes are being raised through the process of inflation. If you understand this paragraph, you understand the Federal Reserve System.

    MONEY

    Now for a more detailed view. There are three general ways in which the Federal Reserve creates fiat money out of debt. One is by making loans to the member banks through what is called the Discount Window. The second is by purchasing Treasury bonds and other certificates of debt through what is called the Open Market Committee. The third is by changing the so-called reserve ratio that member banks are required to hold. Each method is merely a different path to the same objective: taking in IOUs and converting them into spendable money.

    THE DISCOUNT WINDOW

    The Discount Window is merely bankers’ language for the loan window. When banks run short of money, the Federal Reserve stands ready as the “bankers’ bank” to lend it. There are many reasons for them to need loans. Since they hold “reserves” of only about 1 or 2% of their deposits in vault cash and 8 or 9% in securities, their operating margin is extremely thin. It is common for them to experience temporary negative balances caused by unusual customer demand for cash or unusually large clusters of checks all clearing through other banks at the same time. Sometimes they make bad loans and, when these former “assets” are removed from their books, their “reserves” are also decreased and may, in fact, become negative. Finally, there is the profit motive. When banks borrow from the Federal Reserve at one interest rate and lend it out at a higher rate, there is an obvious advantage. But that is merely the beginning. When a bank borrows a dollar from the Fed, it becomes a one-dollar reserve. Since the banks are required to keep reserves of only about 10%, they actually can lend up to $9 for each dollar borrowed.

    THE OPEN MARKET OPERATION

    The most important method used by the Federal Reserve for the creation of fiat money is the purchase and sale of securities on the open market. But, before jumping into this, a word of warning. Don’t expect what follows to make any sense. Just be prepared to know that this is how they do it. The trick lies in the use of words and phrases which have technical meanings quite different from what they imply to the average citizen. So keep your eye on the words. They are not meant to explain but to deceive. In spite of first appearances, the process is not complicated. It is just absurd.

    THE MANDRAKE MECHANISM: A DETAILED VIEW

    Start with…

    GOVERNMENT DEBT

    The federal government adds ink to a piece of paper, creates impressive designs around the edges, and calls it a bond or Treasury note. It is merely a promise to pay a specified sum at a specified interest on a specified date. As we shall see in the following steps, this debt eventually becomes the foundation for almost the entire nation’s money supply.2 In reality, the government has created cash, but it doesn’t yet look like cash. To convert these IOUs into paper bills and checkbook money is the function of The Federal Reserve System. To bring about that transformation, the bond is given to the Fed where it is then classified as a …

    SECURITIES ASSET

    An instrument of government debt is considered an asset because it is assumed the government will keep its promise to pay. This is based upon its ability to obtain whatever money it needs through taxation. Thus, the strength of this asset is the power to take back that which it gives. So the Federal Reserve now has an “asset” which can be used to offset a liability. It then creates this liability by adding ink to yet another piece of paper and exchanging that with the government in return for the asset. That second piece of paper is a

    FEDERAL RESERVE CHECK

    There is no money in any account to cover this check. Anyone else doing that would be sent to prison. It is legal for the Fed, however, because Congress wants the money, and this is the easiest way to get it. (To raise taxes would be political suicide; to depend on the public to buy all the bonds would not be realistic, especially if interest rates are set artificially low; and to print very large quantities of currency would be obvious and controversial.) This way, the process is mysteriously wrapped up in the banking system. The end result, however, is the same as turning on government printing presses and
    simply manufacturing fiat money (money created by the order of government with nothing of tangible value backing it) to pay government expenses. Yet, in accounting terms, the books are said to be “balanced” because the liability of the money is offset by the “asset” of the IOU. The Federal Reserve check received by the government then is endorsed and sent back to one of the Federal Reserve banks where it now becomes a …

    GOVERNMENT DEPOSIT

    Once the Federal Reserve check has been deposited into the government’s account, it is used to pay government expenses and, thus, is transformed into many

    GOVERNMENT CHECKS

    These checks become the means by which the first wave of fiat money floods into the economy. Recipients now deposit them into their own bank accounts where they become

    COMMERCIAL BANK DEPOSITS

    Commercial bank deposits immediately take on a split personality. On the one hand, they are liabilities to the bank because they are owed back to the depositors. But, as long as they remain in the bank, they also are considered as assets because they are on hand. Once again, the books are balanced: the assets offset the liabilities. But the process does not stop there. Through the magic of fractional-reserve banking, the deposits are made to serve an additional and more lucrative purpose. To accomplish this, the on-hand deposits now become reclassified in the books and called

    BANK RESERVES

    Reserves for what? Are these for paying off depositors should they want to close out their accounts? No. That’s the lowly function they served when they were classified as mere assets. Now that they have been given the name of “reserves,” they become the magic wand to materialize even larger amounts of fiat money. This is where the real action is: at the level of the commercial banks. Here’s how it works. The banks are permitted by the Fed to hold as little as 10% of their deposits in “reserve.” That means, if they receive deposits of $1 million from the first wave of fiat money created by the Fed, they have
    1 $900,000 more than they are required to keep on hand ($1 million less 10% reserve). In bankers’ language, that $900,000 is called …

    The word “excess” is a tipoff that these so-called reserves have a special destiny. Now that they have been transmuted into an excess, they are considered as available for lending. And so in due course these excess reserves are converted into …

    BANK LOANS

    But wait a minute. How can this money be lent out when it is owned by the original depositors who are still free to write checks and spend it any time they wish? Isn’t that a double claim against the same money? The answer is that, when the new loans are made, they are not made with the same money at all. They are made with brand new money created out of thin air for that purpose. The nation’s money supply simply increases by ninety per cent of the bank’s deposits. Furthermore, this new money is far more interesting to the banks than the old. The old money, which they received from depositors, requires them to pay out interest or perform services for the privilege of using it. But, with the new money, the banks collect interest, instead, which is not too bad considering it cost them nothing to make. Nor is that the end of the process. When this second wave of fiat money moves into the economy, it comes right back into the banking system, just as the first wave did, in the form of

    MORE COMMERCIAL BANK DEPOSITS

    The process now repeats but with slightly smaller numbers each time around. What was a “loan” on Friday comes back into the bank as a “deposit” on Monday. The deposit then is reclassified as a “reserve” and 90% of that becomes an “excess” reserve which, once again, is available for a new “loan.” Thus, the $1 million of first wave fiat money gives birth to $900,000 in the second wave, and that gives birth to $810,000 in the third wave ($900,000 less 10% reserve). It takes about 28 times through the revolving door of deposits becoming loans becoming deposits becoming more loans until the process plays itself out to the maximum effect, which is …

    BANK FIAT MONEY = UP TO 9 TIMES NATIONAL DEBT

    The amount of fiat money created by the banking cartel is approximately 9 times the amount of the original government debt which made the entire process possible. When the original debt itself is added to that figure, we finally have …

    TOTAL FIAT MONEY = UP TO 10 TIMES NATIONAL DEBT

    The total amount of fiat money created by the Federal Reserve and the commercial banks together is approximately ten times the amount of the underlying government debt. To the degree that this newly created money floods into the economy in excess of goods and services, it causes the purchasing power of all money, both old and new, to decline. Prices go up because the relative value of the money has gone down. The result is the same as if that purchasing power had been taken from us in taxes. The reality of this process, therefore, is that it is a …

    HIDDEN TAX = UP TO 10 TIMES THE NATIONAL DEBT

    Without realizing it, Americans have paid over the years, in addition to their federal income taxes and excise taxes, a completely hidden tax equal to many times the national debt! And that still is not the end of the process. Since our money supply is purely an arbitrary entity with nothing behind it except debt, its quantity can go down as well as up. When people are going deeper into debt, the nation’s money supply expands and prices go up, but when they pay off their debts and refuse to renew, the money supply contracts and prices tumble. That is exactly what happens in times of economic or political uncertainty. This alternation between periods of expansion and contraction of the money supply is the underlying cause of …

    BOOMS, BUSTS, AND DEPRESSIONS

    Who benefits from all of this? Certainly not the average citizen. The only beneficiaries are the political scientists in Congress who enjoy the effect of unlimited revenue to perpetuate their power, and the monetary scientists within the banking cartel called the Federal Reserve System who have been able to harness the American people, without their knowing it, to the yoke of modern feudalism.

    RESERVE RATIOS

    The previous figures are based on a “reserve” ratio of 10% (a money-expansion ratio of 10-to-1). It must be remembered, however, that this is purely arbitrary. Since money is fiat, there is no real limitation except what the money managers decide is expedient. At any time there is a “need” for more money, the pretense of a reserve can be dropped altogether. There is virtually no limit to the amount of fiat money that can be manufactured under the present system.

    NATIONAL DEBT NOT NECESSARY FOR INFLATION

    Because the Federal Reserve can be counted on to “monetize” (convert into money) virtually any amount of government debt, and because this process of expanding the money supply is the primary cause of inflation, it is tempting to jump to the conclusion that federal debt and inflation are but two aspects of the same phenomenon. This, however, is not necessarily true. It is quite possible to have either one without the other.

    The banking cartel holds a monopoly in the manufacture of money. Consequently, money is created only when IOUs are “monetized” by the Fed or by commercial banks. When private individuals, corporations, or institutions purchase government bonds, they must use money they have previously earned and saved. In other words, no new money is created, because they are using funds that are already in existence. Therefore, the sale of government bonds to the banking system is inflationary, but when sold to the private sector, it is not. That is the primary reason the United States avoided massive inflation during the 1980s when the federal government was going into debt at a greater rate than ever before in its history. By keeping interest rates high, these bonds became attractive to private investors, including those in other countries. Very little new money was created, because most of the bonds were purchased with American dollars already in existence. This, of course, was a temporary fix at best. Today, those bonds are continually maturing and are being replaced by still more bonds to include the original debt plus accumulated interest. Eventually this process must come to an end and, when it does, the Fed will have no choice but to literally buy back all the debt of the ’80s—that is, to replace all of the formerly invested private money with newly manufactured fiat money—plus a great deal more to cover the interest. Then we will understand the meaning of inflation.

    On the other side of the coin, the Federal Reserve has the option of manufacturing money even if the federal government does not go deeper into debt. For example, the huge expansion of the money supply leading up to the stock market crash in 1929 occurred at a time when the national debt was being paid off. In every year from 1920 through 1930, federal revenue exceeded expenses, and there were relatively few government bonds being offered. The massive inflation of the money supply was made possible by converting commercial bank loans into “reserves” at the Fed’s discount window and by the Fed’s purchase of banker’s acceptances, which are commercial contracts for the purchase of goods.

    Now the options are even greater. The Monetary Control Act of 1980 has made it possible for the Creature to monetize virtually any debt instrument, including IOUs from foreign governments. The apparent purpose of this legislation is to make it possible to bail out those governments which are having trouble paying the interest on their loans from American banks. When the Fed creates fiat American dollars to give foreign governments in exchange for their worthless bonds, the money path is slightly longer and more twisted, but the effect is similar to the purchase of U.S. Treasury Bonds. The newly created dollars go to the foreign governments, then to the American banks where they become cash reserves. Finally, they flow back into the U.S. money pool (multiplied by nine) in the form of additional loans. The cost of the operation once again is borne by the American citizen through the loss of purchasing power. Expansion of the money supply, therefore, and the inflation that follows, no longer even require federal deficits. As long as someone is willing to borrow American dollars, the cartel will have the option of creating those dollars specifically to purchase their bonds and, by so doing, continue to expand the money supply.

    We must not forget, however, that one of the reasons the Fed was created in the first place was to make it possible for Congress to spend without the public knowing it was being taxed. Americans have shown an amazing indifference to this fleecing, explained undoubtedly by their lack of understanding of how the Mandrake Mechanism works. Consequently, at the present time, this cozy contract between the banking cartel and the politicians is in little danger of being altered. As a practical matter, therefore, even though the Fed may also create fiat money in exchange for commercial debt and for bonds of foreign governments, its major concern likely will be to continue supplying Congress.

    The implications of this fact are mind boggling. Since our money supply, at present at least, is tied to the national debt, to pay off that debt would cause money to disappear. Even to seriously reduce it would cripple the economy.1 Therefore, as long as the Federal Reserve exists, America will be, must be, in debt.

    The purchase of bonds from other governments is accelerating in the present political climate of internationalism. Our own money supply increasingly is based upon their debt as well as ours, and they, too, will not be allowed to pay it off even if they are able.

    TAXES NOT EVEN NECESSARY

    It is a sobering thought that the federal government now could operate—even at its current level of spending—without levying any taxes whatsoever. All it has to do is create the required money through the Federal Reserve System by monetizing its own bonds. In fact, most of the money it now spends is obtained that way.

    If the idea of eliminating the IRS sounds like good news, remember that the inflation that results from monetizing the debt is just as much a tax as any other; but, because it is hidden and so few Americans understand how it works, it is more politically popular than a tax that is out in the open. Inflation can be likened to a game of Monopoly in which the game’s banker has no limit to the amount of money he can distribute. With each throw of the dice he reaches under the table and brings up another stack of those paper tokens which all the players must use as money. If the banker is also one of the players—and in our real world that is exactly the case—obviously he is going to end up owning all the property. But, in the meantime, the increasing flood of money swirls out from the banker and engulfs the players. As the quantity of money becomes greater, the relative worth of each token becomes less, and the prices bid for the properties goes up. The game is called Monopoly for a reason. In the end, one person holds all the property and everyone else is bankrupt. But what does it matter. It’s only a game.

    Unfortunately, it is not a game in the real world. It is our livelihood, our food, our shelter. It does make a difference if there is only one winner, and it makes a big difference if that winner obtained his monopoly simply by manufacturing everyone’s money.

    FOURTH REASON TO ABOLISH THE SYSTEM

    Make no mistake about it, inflation is a tax. Furthermore, it is the most unfair tax of them all because it falls most heavily upon those who are thrifty, those on fixed incomes, and those in the middle and lower income brackets. The important point here is that this hidden tax would be impossible without fiat money. Fiat money in America is created solely as a result of the Federal Reserve System. Therefore, it is totally accurate to say that the Federal Reserve System generates our most unfair tax. Both the tax and the System that makes it possible should be abolished. The political scientists who authorize this process of monetizing the national debt, and the monetary scientists who carry it out, know that it is not true debt. It is not true debt, because no one in Washington really expects to repay it—ever. The dual purpose of this magic show is simply to create free spending money for the politicians, without the inconvenience of raising direct taxes, and also to generate a perpetual river of gold flowing into the banking cartel. The partnership is merely looking out for itself. Why, then, does the federal government bother with taxes at all? Why not just operate on monetized debt? The answer is twofold. First, if it did, people would begin to wonder about the source of the money, and that might cause them to wake up to the reality that inflation is a tax. Thus, open taxes at some level serve to perpetuate public ignorance which is essential to the success of the scheme. The second reason is that taxes, particularly progressive taxes, are weapons by which elitist social planners can wage war on the middle class.

    A TOOL FOR SOCIAL PLANNING

    The January 1946 issue of American Affairs carried an article written by Beardsley Ruml who, at that time, was Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Ruml had devised the system of automatic withholding during World War II, so he was well qualified to speak on the nature and purpose of the federal income tax. His theme was spelled out in the title of his article: “Taxes for Revenue Are Obsolete.” In an introduction to the article, the magazine’s editor summarized Ruml’s views as follows: His thesis is that, given control of a central banking system and an inconvertible currency [a currency not backed by gold], a sovereign national government is finally free of money worries and needs no longer levy taxes for the purpose of providing itself with revenue. All taxation, therefore, should be regarded from the point of view of social and economic consequences.Ruml explained that, since the Federal Reserve now can create out of nothing all the money the government could ever want, there remain only two reasons to have taxes at all. The first of these is to combat a rise in the general level of prices. His argument was that, when people have money in their pockets, they will spend it for goods and services, and this will bid up the prices. The solution, he says, is to take the money away from them through taxation and let the government spend it instead. This, too, will bid up prices, but Ruml chose not to go into that. He explained his theory this way: The dollars the government spends become purchasing power in the hands of the people who have received them. The dollars the government takes by taxes cannot be spent by the people, and therefore, these dollars can no longer be used to acquire the things which are available for sale. Taxation is, therefore, an instrument of the first importance in the administration of any fiscal and monetary policy.

    REDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH

    The other purpose of taxation, according to Ruml, is to redistribute the wealth from one class of citizens to another. This must always be done in the name of social justice or equality, but the real objective is to override the free market and bring society under the control of the master planners. Ruml said:
    The second principal purpose of federal taxes is to attain more equality of wealth and of income than would result from economic forces working alone. The taxes which are effective for this purpose are the progressive individual income tax, the progressive estate tax, and the gift tax. What these taxes should be depends on public policy with respect to the distribution of wealth and of income. These taxes should be defended and attacked in terms of their effect on the character of American life, not as revenue measures?

    As we have seen, Senator Nelson Aldrich was one of the creators of the Federal Reserve System. That is not surprising in light of the cartel nature of the System and the financial interests which he represented. Aldrich also was one of the prime sponsors of the federal income tax. The two creations work together as a far more delicate mechanism for control over the economic and social life of society than either one alone. In more recent years, there has been hopeful evidence that the master planners were about to abandon Ruml’s blueprint. We have heard a great deal both in Congress and at the Federal Reserve about the necessity of reducing expenses so as to diminish the growth of federal debt and inflation. But it has been lip service only. The great bulk of federal funding continues to be created by the Mandrake Mechanism, the cost of government continues to outpace tax revenues, and the Ruml formula reigns supreme.

    EXPANSION LEADS TO CONTRACTION

    While it is true that the Mandrake Mechanism is responsible for the expansion of the money supply, the process also works in reverse. Just as money is created when the Federal Reserve purchases bonds or other debt instruments, it is extinguished by the sale of those same items. When they are sold, the money is given back to the System and disappears into the inkwell or computer chip from which it came. Then, the same secondary ripple effect that created money through the commercial banking system causes it to be withdrawn from the economy. Furthermore, even if the Federal Reserve does not deliberately contract the money supply, the same result can and often does occur when the public decides to resist the availability of credit and reduce its debt. A man can only be tempted to borrow, he cannot be forced to do so.

    There are many psychological factors involved in a decision to go into debt that can offset the easy availability of money and a low interest rate: A downturn in the economy, the threat of civil disorder, the fear of pending war, an uncertain political climate, to name just a few. Even though the Fed may try to pump money into the economy by making it abundantly available, the public can thwart that move simply by saying no, thank you. When this happens, the old debts that are being paid off are not replaced by new ones to take their place, and the entire amount of consumer and business debt will shrink. That means the money supply also will shrink, because, in modern America, debt is money. And it is this very expansion and contraction of the monetary pool—a phenomenon that could not occur if based upon the laws of supply and demand—that is at the very core of practically every boom and bust that has plagued mankind throughout history.

    In conclusion, it can be said that modern money is a grand illusion conjured by the magicians of finance and politics. We are living in an age of fiat money, and it is sobering to realize that every previous nation in history that has adopted such money eventually was economically destroyed by it. Furthermore, there is nothing in our present monetary structure that offers any assurance that we may be exempted from that morbid roll call.

  2. peterpalms says:

    Insolvency actually is inherent in the system itself, a system called fractional reserve banking. The Federal Reserve System has legalized and institutionalized the dishonesty of issuing more hat checks than there are hats and it has devised complex methods of disguising this practice as a perfectly proper and normal feature of banking. Students of finance are told that there simply is no other way for the system to function. Once that premise is accepted, then all attention can be focused, not on the inherent fraud, but on ways and means to live with it and make it as painless as possible. When a bank’s bookkeeping assets finally become less than its liabilities, the rules of the game call for transferring the losses to the depositors themselves. This means they pay twice: once as taxpayers and again as depositors. The mechanism by which this is accomplished is called the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

  3. KEYVAN KALHORI says:

    Thank you Carmen M. Segarra for exposing these people.

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